referencing Custom Essay

referencing guide
What is referencing?
When you write an essay and include someone else’s ideas you need to immediately acknowledge this original source. This is called referencing (or citing) and the detailed description you need to provide is

called a reference (or a citation).
Why is referencing necessary?
Referencing is an acknowledgment of another person’s intellectual work. The act of using and not referencing another person’s work is called plagiarism, an offence carrying heavy penalties at this

University. (Please refer to the Student-related policies and procedures manual in the Sturt Library Reference Collection for more information.)
Referencing makes it possible for your reader to locate your sources independently, whether out of interest or the need to verify your information.
By referring to the work of others you are indicating that you have read widely, that you have relied on quality sources and that you are aware of the body of knowledge that already exists on your


When to reference
You need to provide a reference whenever you quote, paraphrase or summarise someone else’s opinions, theories or data. You must also reference any graphical information you use such as tables,

photographs or diagrams. Some of the sources you will need to learn how to reference include:
books or chapters in books
journal or newspaper articles
conference papers
video or television excerpts
personal communications such as interviews, emails or letters
electronic sources such as web pages, journal articles from online databases, or even software.

The author-date system (Harvard)
Set rules, or systems, exist for referencing. The author-date system (also called the Harvard system) is one system among many. Some other systems include the APA, MLA and Vancouver systems. At the

heart of it, all systems serve the same purpose. They ensure that references are both detailed and accurate enough to allow other people to locate the source of the information. The system used in this guide is

based on the author-date system as used in the Style manual for authors, editors and printers. (See back page for publishing details.)
The anatomy of a reference
Information about any one source must always appear in two places:
1. In the text (the textual reference). You must always include brief identifying information in the body of your essay, directly following any information taken from another source. See section 2 for the

rules involved in creating textual references.
2. In the reference list. Always provide detailed information about each source in a concluding list called the reference list. See section 3 for the rules involved in creating the reference list.
Section 1 General rules of referencing
1.1 Quotations
Quotations shorter than around 30 words can be integrated into the text of your essay but must be placed within single quotation marks.
Quotations that are more than 30 words are not enclosed within quotation marks. They must be set apart in the text in the following way:
. decrease the font size of the quote by one size
. leave a one line space above and below the quote
. indent the entire quote on the left hand side (one centimetre, as a rough guide).

Always introduce a long quotation by a colon, as in the following example:
De Raeve (1998, p. 488) is of the opinion that:
Nursing cannot require of individual nurses that they wholeheartedly sacrifice personal for professional integrity, since this would lead to the depersonalization of the individual and to individuals becoming the

tools of the group. This, it might be said, was what happened to prison camp guards in Nazi Germany, where integrity might have been construed purely as loyalty to the regime and obedience to authority,

thereby, many would say, undermining its very nature.
This argument may be especially pertinent where nurses are employed by the state.
If you leave out a word or words from a quote, insert three trailing dots (ellipsis) in place of the missing words. Make sure the original meaning remains the same with the word(s) taken out.
According to Boyd (1998, p. 1003), ‘through social support a person … feels helped, valued, and in personal control …’
Here the first set of dots replace the word also. The dots at the end of the quote indicate that only part of the original sentence was used.
1.2 Page numbers in the textual reference
Always give the relevant page number(s) in the textual reference whenever you quote or paraphrase information found in a print source (e.g. journal article, book, government publication, or conference

proceedings). This makes it easier for someone to trace the relevant passage within the publication. Page numbers are not required if you are only referring to a particular work.
Do not include page number information in the textual reference when referencing an electronic source, unless this source is an Adobe Acrobat document. (See section 4.1.3 for further information.)
1.3 Date variations
Occasionally a publication will not have a clear-cut publication date for you to use in your reference. You need to communicate this to your reader by using one of the following conventions. Remember that

whatever you use in the textual reference you must also use in the reference list.
. no date on publication— use the abbreviation n.d. for no date
. date only approximate—precede the approximate date with a lowercase c for circa
. dubious date—precede a questionable date with a question mark (e.g. Jones ?1899)
. unpublished work—give the abbreviation unpub. in place of a date if a work is unpublished.
(This does not apply to personal communications. See section 2.8.)
1.4 Rules about authors
Works may bear the name of one author or several authors. An author’s name can be a personal name (such as J Taylor) or the name of an organisation, institution or corporation (e.g. Flinders University,

School of Nursing & Midwifery).
Sometimes a work will bear the name of a sponsoring organisation in addition to the names of individual authors. In this case, treat the organisation as the author of the work, structuring your reference

according to the rule in section 3.5.5.
You can use a well-known shortened form of an organisation’s name (e.g. RDNS or WHO) in both the textual reference (for the sake of space) and the reference list provided you include an alphabetical list of

all abbreviated names used. Place this before the reference list. Remember that the name you use in the textual reference must match the name you use in the reference list. 8
Section 2 The textual reference
2.1 One author
Whenever you quote, paraphrase or even refer to another author’s idea in your essay you must immediately acknowledge your source by giving (in parentheses) the author’s surname and the year the

information was published (e.g. Smith 1977). Do not insert a comma between these two elements.
Furthermore, also include the relevant page number(s) in the textual reference whenever quoting or paraphrasing. When referencing electronic sources this rule only applies to Acrobat documents. (See section

4.1.3 for a full explanation of this rule.) Page numbers are not required if you are only referring to a particular work.
Precede a single page number with the abbreviation p. and a page number range with pp. (e.g. pp. 10-11). Page numbers follow the date, with a comma between the two.
A disease-centred orientation currently determines the financial and political structure of health care in Australia (Lumby 1997, p. 111).
Please note that the reference is inserted before any concluding punctuation (in this case, a full stop).
Alternatively, incorporate the author’s name into your sentence and then leave it out of the parentheses.
According to Lumby (1997, p. 111), the current political and financial structuring of health care is based on a disease-centred orientation
2.2 Two or three authors
When the information you are referencing has two or three authors include all surnames in the textual reference as shown below.
(two authors)
Some health authorities have already withdrawn funding for these kinds of treatments (Hardy & Taylor 1999, p. 24).
(three authors)
It is important that undergraduate nurses master the skill of critiquing studies in preparation for professional practice as registered nurses (Daly, Elliott & Chang 2000, p. 102).
However, if incorporating the two or three authors’ names into your sentence, replace the ampersand sign (&) with the word and.
Hardy and Taylor (1999, p. 24) state that ‘some health authorities have denied or withdrawn funding for such treatments’.
2.3 Four or more authors
When referencing material written by four or more authors only include the surname of the first author listed, followed by the abbreviation et al. (meaning and others). However, all names must appear in the

reference list (see section 3.5.3).
The following example is for a journal article written by Jones, Ward, Wiggins and Sandford.
One survey set out to establish mental health nurses’ knowledge of legislation (Jones et al. 1999, p. 7).
2.4 No author
If you can’t determine the author(s) of a work, include the work’s title (in italics) within the parentheses with the date.
One patient education leaflet states that the disease occurs more frequently in men (Coronary heart disease facts 1998).
2.5 One volume of a multi-volume work
When your information comes from one volume of a multi-volume work, include the volume number in the reference between the date and the page numbers (e.g. Katz 1990, vol. 5, p. 10).
Omit the page number(s) if referring to the entire volume. See section 3.5.8 for how to include volume information in the reference list. 9
2.6 Two authors with the same surname
Include an author’s initials in a textual reference to distinguish between works written in the same year by authors with the same surname. Place the initials after the surname within the parentheses. However, if

incorporating the authors’ names into the sentence, put the initials before the surname.
One study (Smith, JB 1998) suggests there is an effect; however, AC Smith (1998) refutes this finding.
2.7 A chapter in an edited work
An edited work is a publication with chapters written by a number of different authors. It will have an editor or editors who are those responsible for compiling and arranging all this material.
When you use information from an edited book in your essay, reference the exact chapter the information came from rather than the entire work. Put the name of the chapter author in the textual reference, not

the name of the editor. See section 3.5.6 for including chapter information in the reference list.
2.8 Personal communications
A personal communication can be a letter, memo, email, facsimile, an interview, an informal conversation, telephone call or a lecture presentation. They are included in the textual reference but not generally in

the reference list.
When referencing a personal communication:
. obtain permission of person in order to quote them
. give the communicator’s initials and surname
. include the type of communication in the textual reference
. give the exact date of the communication—day, month and year.
According to a personal source, discussions about raising the Medicare levy are already taking place (GJ Trembath, 1999, pers. comm., 5 March).
In an email communication on 4 February 2005, A Jones outlined …
S Smith confirmed this by facsimile on 20 January 2005.

Give as much descriptive information about the communication as you can in the text of your essay and omit the textual reference altogether:
In a lecture for Foundations of Nursing (NURS 1404), presented on 19 April 2004 at Flinders University, Dr C Power suggested …
Note: as personal communications are untraceable, they are not included in the reference list.
2.9 A work described in another work
Sometimes you may need to reference an original idea by one author (a primary source) found in a book or article written by another author (a secondary source). In such circumstances you should always try

to locate the primary source and read it for yourself, simply because the secondary work may have misconstrued the original message. When this is not possible, you must acknowledge both sources in the

body of your essay. However, only include the work you actually read (i.e. the secondary source) in your reference list. In the following example, Clarke is the author of a work discussed in an article by

Clarke’s 1992 study (cited in Brown 1995, p. 10) demonstrates that …
Brown (1995, p. 10) in reporting a 1992 study by Clarke states …10
2.10 Information found in more than one source
If you find a piece of information in more than one source, you may want to include all sources in your references to strengthen the legitimacy of your argument. In this case, cite all sources in the same

parentheses, placing them in order of publication date (earliest first). Separate one reference from the next using a semi-colon (;).
Several clinical trials (Bean 1985; Alt 1994; Smith 1997) indicate …
Bean (1985), Alt (1994), and Smith (1997) have shown …
2.11 Two or more publications with the same author and date
If you are referencing two or more works by the same author published in the same year, distinguish between the different publications by adding a lowercase letter to the date of each, beginning with a, then b

then c and so on.
In his initial study Jones (1985a) found this to be true. However, subsequent studies (Jones 1985b; Harris 1987) have failed to arrive at the same conclusion.
For how to then set out these references in the concluding reference list, see the Grbich example in section 3.16. 11
Section 3 The reference list
Always include a reference list at the end of your assignment detailing each work already referred to in your essay. Do not include any additional sources in this list, unless your lecturer has specifically asked for

a bibliography. A bibliography is a list of every item you read while preparing your essay, whether referred to in the text of the essay or not.
3.1 The layout of the list
Works in a reference list (or bibliography) are listed in alphabetical order by author name, or by title when there is no author. See section 3.16 for an example of a formatted reference list.
If you have several works by the same author, list these works in chronological publication date order (i.e. start with the earliest publication date and end with the latest).
If one author has published several works in the one year (see section 2.11), list these works according to the lowercase letter attached to the date (i.e. 1986a comes before 1986b and so on).
The reference list typeface is often smaller than the normal text.
3.2 The essential elements
Depending on the type of item you are referencing, you must include a certain minimum of information for your reference to be complete. For example, you would need to tell your reader some very specific

information to indicate the item you are referring to is a video rather than a book, journal article or electronic database. The following sections set out the rules for referencing a wide variety of information types

and will show you how to arrange the different elements.
3.3 Punctuation
In the author-date system of referencing, all the elements of the reference after the date are separated from each other by commas. A full stop concludes the citation.
3.4 Capitalisation of titles
3.4.1 Titles of books
Capitalise the first letter of the first word of the title and any proper names in the title. Titles should always be in italics, e.g. Recent developments in dementia care or The nurse in Australia.
3.4.2 Titles of journals, magazines and newspapers
Capitalise the first letter of the first word of the title and every other word except for definite articles (the, an, a), prepositions (of, for, in, to, on etc) and conjunctions (but, and, then). This is called maximal

capitalisation. Titles should always be in italics, e.g. Journal of Advanced Nursing, Australian or Sydney Morning Herald.
3.4.3 Titles of journal articles, book chapters and conference papers
Titles of articles that are part of larger works should always be given in single quotation marks. When referencing these titles, only capitalise the first letter of the first word of the title.
Capitalise any words which are usually capitalised (proper nouns), such as place names and names of organisations.
Note the capitals in the following examples: ‘Lessons from literature: caring, interpretation and dialogue’; ‘Nursing in the future: a look at Australia, the UK, and Southeast Asia.’
3.4.4 Titles of unpublished works
An unpublished work can be a thesis, a manuscript, distributed lecture notes or an unpublished paper presented at a conference, seminar or meeting. Capitalise only the first letter of the first word of the title.

Other than that, capitalise only words that are normally capitalised (proper nouns). In other words, titles of unpublished works have minimal capitalisation; they are not italicised. The titles are, however, set in

single quotation marks. 12
3.5 Book references
Include the following elements in the order given:
. author(s)
. year of publication
. title of the book, italicised and as it appears on the title page, not the book cover
. title of series (if applicable)
. volume number, or number of volumes (if applicable)
. edition (if not the first) written as 2nd edn, 5th edn etc.
. editor, reviser, compiler or translator, if other than the author
. publisher (or publishers when item is co-published)
. place of publication. Give the name of the suburb or city and of the state or country if the city is not well known. If more than one place is listed, give only the first-named place.

See section 3.4 for the rules on title capitalisation.
3.5.1 One author
Adams, T 1999, Recent developments in dementia care, NT Books, London.
3.5.2 Two authors
Miller, AW & Hanretty, KP 1997, Obstetrics illustrated, 5th edn, Churchill Livingstone, New York.
3.5.3 More than two authors
Jarvis, TJ, Tebbutt, J & Mattick, RP 1995, Treatment approaches for alcohol and drug dependence: an introductory guide, John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
3.5.4 No author (file by title)
Health law: a guide for nurses n.d., Albatross Press, Ringwood, Vic.
Note: the abbreviation n.d. in this example indicates the work did not display a publication date.
3.5.5 A book sponsored by an organisation or institution
If a book is clearly sponsored by an organisation and the title page bears no individual author name, list the book under the name of the organisation (see section 1.4).
Springhouse Corporation 1997, Fluids & electrolytes made incredibly easy, Springhouse Corporation, Springhouse, Pennsylvania.
If there is an author’s name on the title page, include this name in the following way:
Australian Consumers’ Association 1983, In sickness & in health, report prepared by S Fogg, Australian Consumers’ Association and ACOSS, Marrickville, NSW.
Note: title page said: Sponsored by the Australian Consumers’ Association … report prepared by Sarah Fogg.
3.5.6 A chapter in an edited work
As stated in section 2.7, when using information from an edited book, reference the chapter the information came from, rather than the entire work. Your reference begins with the name of the person who

wrote the chapter, not the name of the editor. It must also include the following elements, in the order shown here:
. the chapter title in single quotation marks
. the word in before the title of the book
. the book title in italics
. editor’s name (with initials before surname) preceded by the abbreviation ed. If there is more than one editor, give the abbreviation eds before listing all names.
See section 3.4 for the rules on title capitalisation.
Willis, E, Biggins, A & Donovan, J 1999, ‘Population-focused practice’, in Community health nursing: caring in action, eds J Hitchcock, P Schubert & S Thomas, Delmar Publishers, New York.
Koch, T, Sando, PF & Hudson, S 1999, ‘The nursing care of older people with diarrhoea and constipation’, in R Ratnaike (ed.), Diarrhoea and constipation in geriatric practice, Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge, UK.
If the work has been compiled rather than edited, set out the reference in the same way but use the abbreviation comp. (singular) or comps (plural) in place of ed. or eds.
3.5.7 An edited work
While you would usually include an edited work in your references listed under the name of the author whose chapter you actually cited in text, there may be instances where you want to reference the entire

work (e.g. in a bibliography or if referencing an editor’s foreword). In this case list the work under the name(s) of the editor(s) and insert the abbreviation ed. or eds in parentheses before the date.
Grbich, C (ed.) 1999, Health in Australia: sociological concepts and issues, 2nd edn, Longman, Sydney.
If a compiler has compiled the work, give the abbreviation comp. instead of ed. (or comps if there are several compilers).
3.5.8 One volume of a multi-volume work
When referencing information that comes from one volume of a multi-volume work, follow the title of the complete work with the relevant volume number (written as vol. 1). If the individual volume has its own

title, include this title after the volume number. Both titles are italicized.
Gold, H 1999, The life and times of Florence Nightingale, vol. 4, The Crimean War years: 1854-56, 5th edn, Pegasus Press, Washington, DC.
Note: this is the 5th edition of this multi-volume work.
If you are referencing more than one volume of the set, indicate the relevant volumes after the set title in the form vols 2 & 3. Do not give individual volume titles. If referencing the entire multi-volume work,

give the total number of volumes (e.g. 5 vols).
If you are only referencing one chapter of an edited multi-volume work, set out the reference in this way:
Duncan, C & Googe, MC 1997, ‘Common musculoskeletal interventions’, in LO Burrell, MJ Gerlach & B Pless (eds), Adult nursing: acute and community care, vol. 9, Nursing management of adults with

musculoskeletal problems, 2nd edn, Appleton & Lange, Stamford, Connecticut.
Note: here Duncan and Googe have written a chapter in volume 9 of a multi-volume work called Adult nursing …
The complete work is in its second edition and has three editors. The relevant volume (vol. 9) also has its own title: Nursing management of adults with …
3.5.9 A translated work
If referencing a work originally published in another language, include the name of the translator preceded by the abbreviation trans. as in the following example:
Izedinova, SV 1977, A few months with the Boers: the war reminiscences of a Russian nursing sister, trans. C Moody, Perskor, Johannesburg.
3.5.10 A book that is part of a series
If the book you are referencing is part of a series, include the series name in your reference after the title of the book. Give both titles minimal capitalisation but italicise only the book title.
Chapman, CM 1977, Sociology for nurses, Nurses’ aid series, Bailliere Tindall, London.
If the series is numbered include the number in the series statement.
Pryor, J (ed.) 1999, Rehabilitation: a vital nursing function, Royal College of Nursing, Australia professional development series no. 11, Royal College of Nursing, Deakin, ACT. 14
3.6 Journal articles
Include the following elements in the order given:
. author(s)
. year of publication
. title of the article, in single quotation marks
. title of the journal, in italics
. volume number, written as vol.
. issue number (written as no.) or some other identifier, usually a month
. page number(s).

See section 3.4 for rules on capitalisation of article and journal titles.
Please note that you do not give publication details (publisher name and place of publication) for journal articles and, unlike book references, you always include page and volume information.
If a journal lacks volume or issue information give either the season, the day and month of publication or a month range instead, (e.g. January-February, winter, or 12-19 September).
Give the volume and issue numbers in arabic numerals (e.g. 1, 2) even if roman numerals are used on the original publication (i.e. write vol. 9 not vol. IX)
Always drop the definite article (the, an, a) from the name of any journal (e.g. write Journal of Advanced Nursing and not The Journal of Advanced Nursing).
3.6.1 No author
‘Patient latex allergy and its implications for surgery’ 1992, Journal of Perianaesthesia Nursing, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 34-36.
3.6.2 One author
Hall, M 1999, ‘Breaking the silence: marginalisation of registered nurses employed in nursing homes’, Contemporary Nurse, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 232-237.
3.6.3 More than one author
King, M & Wilson, K 1999, ‘The teaching and learning principles of metropolitan Aborigines with diabetes’, Contemporary Nurse, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 152-158.
3.6.4 Newspaper articles
Reference a newspaper article in the same way you would a journal article; however, give the day and month the article appeared in the paper instead of the usual volume and issue information.
Lawnham, P 2000, ‘Program aims to attract nurses to aged care’, Australian, 21 June, p. 47.
When referencing a newspaper article without an author, give full bibliographical details in the textual reference only and nothing in the reference list. Do not include the title of an anonymous newspaper article

in either reference, rather give the name of the newspaper as the title.
According to a recent report, the Government is considering ways to attract more nurses to rural areas (Advertiser 27 May 1999, p. B2). 15
3.7 Published conference papers
Include the following elements (where possible) in the order given:
. author(s)
. year of publication (not year of presentation)
. title of the paper, in single quotation marks
. full title of the conference (as set out on the title page) in italics;
. editor(s) of the proceedings (if applicable)
. publisher
. place of publication
. page number(s) of the paper.

See section 3.4 for the rules on title capitalisation.
3.7.1 Unedited conference proceedings
Barkway, P, de Crespigny, C & Flanagan, A 1999, ‘Preparing tomorrow’s registered nurses to respond to the mental health issues of their clients’, Looking forward, looking back: international conference on

mental health nursing: proceedings, Australian and New Zealand College of Mental Health Nurses, Canberra, pp. 61-64.
3.7.2 Edited conference proceedings
Clare, J & Hawes, C 1999, ‘Breaking down the barriers for women: empowering nurses to take part in a research culture’, Winds of change: women and the culture of universities: conference proceedings,

eds D Cohen, A Lee, J Newman, AM Payne, H Scheeres, H Shoemark & S Tiffin, University of Technology, Sydney.
Note: in this example the proceedings were published a year after the event took place.
3.8 Unpublished works
An unpublished work can be a thesis, a manuscript or an unpublished paper presented at a conference, seminar or meeting. It could also be a set of lecture notes given to you by your lecturer.
3.8.1 Theses
Reference a thesis the same as book and note that the work is a thesis after the title. Always give the name of the university that supervised the research. Also state the level of the thesis (e.g. PhD, BA (Hons),

Nicholson, SM 1999, ‘Angels with attitude: changes in South Australian hospital nursing culture, 1945-1990’, PhD thesis, Flinders University.
3.8.2 Unpublished papers at conferences, meetings etc.
Always include the following:
. author(s)
. year of presentation
. title of the paper with quotation marks
. the statement paper presented to (or paper presented at)
. the name of the meeting/conference (no italics)
. place of meeting
. date of meeting, in the form 21-24 August.

See section 3.4 for the rules on title capitalisation.
Rushforth, R 1999, ‘Nursing in the hospice setting: the emotional cost’, paper presented to the 5th National Conference of Hospice Care Nurses, Mildura, Victoria, 21-25 March. 16
3.8.3 Lecture notes or study guides
When referencing lecture notes distributed by the lecturer, school etc., include the author’s name, the year of presentation, the lecture title, the unit being presented (capitalised), the name of the teaching

organisation, the location and the date. Do not use italics.
Rudge, T 2000, ‘Health and illness’, lecture notes distributed in the topic NURS1404 Foundations of Nursing, Flinders University, Bedford Park on 17 April.
or for a Study plan
Flinders University 2000, ‘Study plan: NURS1607 Fundamentals of Science in a Nursing Context’, Flinders University, Bedford Park.
Note: notes you take in the course of a lecture are treated as a personal communication. See section 2.8.
3.9 Government publications
An organisational unit such as a department, a commission of inquiry, a committee or a bureau usually writes government publications. There are many types of government publications. Some of the more

common forms you may encounter include reports (by or to government bodies) and statistical Australian Bureau of Statistics publications. Although these publications can seem complicated to reference, they

usually follow the pattern set out for books.
3.9.1 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) material
Australian Bureau of Statistics 1994, Australia’s food and nutrition, no. 8904.0, ABS, Canberra.
For ABS material, always include the ABS catalogue number in the reference. This is usually found on the title page.
3.9.2 Government reports
Government reports include commission of inquiry reports, annual reports, reports by committees of review or independent review bodies, or reports by an individual to a specific government body. Always

include the following elements when referencing a government report:
. name(s) of the author(s) or the group responsible for the report
. year of publication
. title of the report, in italics
. the status of the report indicates not only that the item is a report but also the report type, e.g. final report, interim report, main report, executive summary, report to a specific agency
. the name(s) of any commissioner(s) or chairperson(s), in parentheses and in initial-surname order
. publisher
. place of publication.
Task Force on Co-ordination in Welfare and Health 1977, Proposals for change in the administration and delivery of programs and services, first report (PH Bailey, chairman), Australian Government Printing

Service, Canberra.

When a report has a well-known title that is different to its formal title (e.g. the Stolen Generations Report), include an entry for this common title in your list of references with a see reference to lead the reader

to the more formal reference. This is called cross-referencing.
National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families 1997, Bringing them home, (R Wilson, president), Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission,

Stolen generations report. See National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families.
When a report is prepared by an individual and presented to a government body, set out the reference as follows:
Neill, J 1992, Leaving hospital: elderly people and their discharge to community care, report to the Department of Health, HMSO, London. 17
3.9.3 Government publications that are part of a series
When a government publication belongs to a series, include the series name after the publication’s title (see section 3.5.10).
Hupalo, P & Herden, K 1999, Health policy and inequality, Department of Health and Aged Care occasional papers series no. 5, Department of Health and Aged Care, Canberra.
If referencing a government report, give the name of the series after the report status.
Ove Arup and Partners 1999, Essential services costs in remote indigenous communities, consultancy report for the Housing, Infrastructure, Health and Heritage Branch, Indigenous housing and living

environment series, Aboriginal and Torres Islander Commission, Canberra.
3.9.4 Parliamentary papers
Documents tabled in Parliament and published on the order of the Senate or House of Representatives form a series called the Parliamentary Papers series. These documents are usually reports of some kind

and can be referenced in the way described in 3.9.2. However, in place of a publisher, include the Parliamentary Paper number as in the following example:
Industry Commission 1997, Private health insurance, Parl. Paper 79/97, Canberra.
Note: the Parliamentary Paper statement is abbreviated to Parl. Paper.
3.9.5 Acts of Parliament
Acts of Parliament are detailed in full in the text of your essay. They are not given a textual reference and neither are they listed in the reference list. Include the following information:
. the Act’s short title (which usually includes a year) in italics
. a legislation number (if appropriate)
. the jurisdiction (e.g. SA, Vic., Cwlth, UK etc.) in parentheses
. the relevant section of the Act, abbreviated in the form s. 4 or ss. 4-7, or, if part of a subsection, s. 19(1) (a) (ii).
According to the Nurses Act 1999 (SA), s. 3(1), unprofessional conduct includes ‘incompetence or negligence in relation to nursing.

3.10 Standards
Include the standard number (in parentheses) after the title when referencing standards.
Committee HT/30, Cleaning and sterilization of medical and surgical equipment 1994, Code of practice for cleaning, disinfecting and sterilizing reusable medical and surgical instruments and equipment, and

maintenance of associated environments in health care facilities, (AS 4187-1994), Standards Australia, Homebush, NSW.
3.11 Encyclopedia and dictionary entries
Treat an encyclopedia entry the same way you would a newspaper article (leaving out the day and month details). If there is not author or if you are citing a dictionary then provide the necessary information in

the text only.
‘Vitamin C deficiency’ 1982, New encyclopedia Britannica, 15th edn, vol. 10, p. 469.
The Mosby’s medical, nursing & allied health dictionary (2002) defines it as…
(Mosby’s medical nursing & allied health dictionary 2002)
(No entry is required in the reference list if you have the name and date of the encyclopedia or dictionary in the in-text reference).
Encyclopedia or dictionary entry with an author
Cole, JO & Cole, KG 1963, ‘Psychopharmacology’, Encyclopedia of mental health, vol. 5, pp. 1654-1663. 18
3.12 Films and videos
For motion picture and commercial video recordings include, in this order:
. title of program or film (in italics and with minimal capitalisation. See section 3.4.1)
. date of production or recording
. format of the recording, (e.g. video recording, or motion picture)
. publisher or name of production company (e.g. Pinewood Studios)
. place of production
. any special credits such as producer or sponsor, if applicable.
Hospital realities 1972, motion picture, BBC, London.

If a video or film is part of a series, give the title of the individual program in italics, followed by date and format. Next give the title of the series, without italics, preceding the production details.
The emotive image of nursing: the media portrayal of the nurse 1997, video recording, Australian nurses: the video series, Waterbyrd Filmz, Australia.
3.13 Television and radio broadcasts
For television and radio programs, give the date of transmission (in full) rather than a date of production. Use either television program or radio program as the format. Include the name of the channel that aired

the program and any special credits.
No quick fix 2004, television program, ABC Television, Sydney, 10 August. Executive producer J. Finlay.
If the program is part of a series, give the name of the series episode first, in italics. The title of the series (also in italics) follows the date. Both titles are capitalised (see 3.4).
Prohibition or reform 1989, television program, Lateline, ABC Television, Sydney, 7 April. Reporter/producer M Corcoran.
Hearing loss in children 2000, radio program, Health report, ABC Radio National, Canberra, 10 July. Announcer N Swan.
3.14 Publications on microfiche or microfilm
Reference a microform document (fiche or film) as though the item were in print form. However, include either the term microfiche or microfilm in your reference to indicate this special format to the reader.
A thesis
Bridge, K 1996, ‘From bandaids to boardroom: conflicts and contradictions in the practice of occupational health nursing in South Australia’, microfiche, MA thesis, Flinders University.
Note that the thesis title is not italicised in this example. This is in accordance with the title rule in section 3.4.3.
A book on microfilm
Johnson, A 1947, Another’s harvest, microfilm, Bookman, Calcutta.
3.15 Cassette or CD recordings (not CD-ROMs)
Include the phrase cassette recording or CD recording after the title. Provide a cassette or CD number if evident on the item.
Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission 1984, Faces of culture in health care, cassette recording, Centre for Continuing Medical Education, University of NSW, Sydney. 19
3.16 A sample reference list
Note the punctuation of each reference.
Adams, T 1999, Recent developments in dementia care, NT Books, London.
Australian Bureau of Statistics 1994, Australia’s food and nutrition, no. 8904.0, ABS, Canberra.
The emotive image of nursing: the media portrayal of the nurse 1997, video recording, Australian nurses: the video series, Waterbyrd Filmz, Australia.
Grbich, C 1995, ‘Male primary caregivers and domestic labour: involvement or avoidance?’, Journal of Family Studies, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 114-129.
Grbich, C (ed.) 1999a, Health in Australia: sociological concepts and issues, 2nd edn, Longman, Sydney.
Grbich, C 1999b, Qualitative research in health: an introduction, Allen & Unwin, St. Leonards, NSW.
Jarvis, TJ, Tebbutt, J & Mattick, RP 1995, Treatment approaches for alcohol and drug dependence: an introductory guide, John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
King, M & Wilson, K 1999, ‘The teaching and learning principles of metropolitan Aborigines with diabetes’, Contemporary Nurse, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 152-158.
Lawnham, P 2000, ‘Program aims to attract nurses to aged care’, Australian, 21 June, p. 47.
Nicholson, SM 1999, ‘Angels with attitude: changes in South Australian hospital nursing culture, 1945-1990’, PhD thesis, Flinders University.
‘Patient latex allergy and its implications for surgery’ 1992, Journal of Perianaesthesia Nursing, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 34-36.
Rudge, T 2000, ‘Health and illness’, lecture notes distributed in the topic NURS 1404 Foundations of Nursing, Flinders University, Bedford Park on 17 April.
‘Vitamin C deficiency’ 1982, New encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edn, vol. 10, p. 469.20
Section 4 Electronic sources
Electronic sources include:
. electronic books
. electronic journal articles
. World Wide Web site or page/s
. Document on World Wide Web
. electronic databases, either on CD-ROM or accessed through the Internet
. software
. email
. bulletin boards, discussion groups, listservers.

4.1 General rules for referencing electronic sources
4.1.1 The statement of availability
Instead of publisher and place of publication details (which can be meaningless in an electronic context) provide your reader with information on how to access the electronic information. For a webpage this

would mean providing a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) for the page.
Dept of Health Studies, The University of York 2000, Centre for evidence based nursing, viewed 10 November 2004, .
4.1.2 Date of access
Information on the World Wide Web can be described as dynamic. A document found today may tomorrow move to another address, be substantially changed in content, or disappear altogether. Therefore,

when referencing any source accessed through the web, always include the exact date of access. This covers you in case the information subsequently disappears.
4.1.3 Page numbers
Unlike print sources, electronic sources often have no clearly defined page sequence. Hypertext links in a starting page can be explored in any order you like and a book that has 100 pages in print can be

made to fit on one screen of a webpage (with a lot of scrolling involved). Therefore, the idea of page numbers to indicate both the point at which your piece of information occurs and the length of a document

is meaningless in an electronic environment. Do not include them in your reference even if they appear on the page after printing the document. These are only printer-assigned page numbers.
The only instance where you should include page numbers in a reference to an electronic source is when you are referencing an Acrobat document. You will recognise Acrobat documents by the fact that you

can only read them by opening a piece of software called the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Acrobat documents (or PDF files) are photographic replicas of original print sources and come complete with page

numbers. Many electronic journal articles and government documents are available in this format.
4.1.4 The web page title
The web page title is displayed at the very top of the screen in your browser’s title bar. Always give what you see here as the title when referencing general websites (not electronic journal articles). Only use a

title displaying on the screen if the title on the title bar is not descriptive enough, or reads as untitled document (which is what you see when the author has forgotten to name the page).
4.1.5 Determining the web page author
This can be difficult, especially if you are referencing a page other than the front page or home page of a web page, which is where this information is usually found. To avoid making inferences that may be

incorrect, you should only reference what you can actually see on the page in question. In other words, do not track backwards to find the starting point for the entire site.
If you can’t see an author’s name, give the website title in the textual reference and set out your full reference following the instructions at 4.4.2. 21
4.1.6 Publication dates on web pages
More often than not you will find a publication date on a print source. Websites can be more complicated as you may be given a copyright date, a statement telling you when the page was last updated, or there

may be no date at all. Always give a last update date, if one is available, in preference to a copyright date as this tells your reader which version of the page you were looking at. If no date is given, use the

abbreviation n.d. (for no date).
4.2 Electronic books
When referencing an electronic book
. author(s)
. year of publication
. book title, in italics
. edition statement
. date of last update
. page numbers
. date viewed—viewed 6 June 2005
. URL or if from an electronic collection of books, include producer and collection name in brackets preceded by the word online e.g. (online OVID/Books@Ovid)
4.2.1 A book from the OVID Books @ Ovid collection
Wachter, RM, Goldman, L & Hollander, H (ed.) 2005, Hospital medicine, 2nd edn, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, viewed 8 December 2005, (online OVID/Books@Ovid).
4.2.2 A book on the World Wide Web
Van Sell, S & Kalofissudis, IA 2001, The evolving essence of the science of nursing: a complexity integration nursing theory, viewed 8 December 2005, .

4.3 Electronic journal articles in full text databases and journal collections
When referencing an electronic journal article include:
. author(s)
. year of publication
. article title, in single quotation marks
. journal title, in italics
. volume and issue number
. page numbers (for Acrobat articles only)
. the date viewed—viewed 1 February 2005

See section 3.4 for the rules on title capitalisation.
Please note that you do not give a URL (or web address) for electronic journals that you access through a commercial database or electronic journals collection. The name of the supplier and database or

collection is sufficient.
Some of the more common electronic journal collections and full text databases accessible through the Flinders University Library are set out here with the name of their supplier (in brackets).
. Expanded Academic ASAP (Gale Group)
. Journals@OVID (OVID)
. ProQuest (Bell & Howell)
. AustHealth (Informit)
. Cochrane Library [Wiley Interscience]
4.3.1 A journal article from Expanded Academic ASAP
Hines, SC, Moss, AH & Badzek, L 1997, ‘Being involved or just being informed: communication preferences of seriously ill, older adults’, Communication Quarterly, vol. 45, no. 3, viewed 4 February 2005,

(online Gale Group/Expanded Academic ASAP).
4.3.2 A journal article from the Journals@OVID collection
Mackenzie, D 1998, ‘What’s wrong with this patient?’, RN, vol. 61, no. 9, viewed 20 January 2005, (online OVID/Journals@OVID).
4.3.3 A journal article available on the CINAHL database
Ackley, N 1999, ‘Is there a serious nurse shortage coming?’, Texas Nursing, vol. 73, no. 3, viewed 4 February 2005, (online EBSCOhost/CINAHL).
. If you accessed a database through the web (via the library homepage) use online as the medium.
. Include the date you viewed the item.
. If you access it through a CD-ROM workstation use CD-ROM.
. Use electronic as the medium if you are uncertain as to how you accessed the database.
4.3.4 A journal article abstract on the CINAHL database
Ray, MA 1994, ‘Transcultural nursing ethics: a framework and model for transcultural ethical analysis’, Journal of Holistic Nursing, abstract, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 251-64, viewed 21 December 2004, (electronic


Note: page numbers are included in this example as the article was in PDF format (see section 4.1.3).
4.3.5 A Cochrane Review in the Cochrane Library via Wiley Interscience
Hodnett, ED 2005, ‘Support during pregnancy for women at increased risk’ (Cochrane Review), (online Wiley Interscience/Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews).
4.3.6 An in press journal article available on the Elsevier/Science Direct database
Zamudio, S, Baumann, MU & Illsley, NP (in press), Effects of chronic hypoxia in vivo on the expression of human placental glucose transporters, Placenta, viewed 17 October 2005, (online Elsevier/Science

4.4 Electronic journals available on the World Wide Web
Some journals are available free over the web and do not need to be accessed through a commercial database (e.g. CINAHL) or electronic journal collection (e.g. Wiley Interscience). All you need to access

articles from these journals is the URL of the particular electronic journal. Set out a reference to such a journal article as follows:
Hall, WD & Wodak, A 1999, ‘Is naltrexone a cure for heroin dependence?’, eMJA, vol. 171, viewed 26 July 2000, . 23
4.5 A World Wide Web page
Include in your reference:
. author—the person or organisation responsible for the site
. site date—either a ‘last update’, copyright date or n.d. if no date available
. name and place of the sponsor of the website
. date of viewing the site
. URL—found in the address bar of your browser.
4.5.1 A web page with an author
Florence Nightingale Museum Trust 2003, Florence Nightingale Museum website, London, viewed 10 July 2004, .
4.5.2 A web page with no author

When you can’t determine the author(s) of a website, set out your reference as follows: Page title Last update or copyright date, Name and place of the sponsor of the source, date viewed, URL in angle

brackets (<>).
Nursing theory 2003, University of San Diego, San Diego, viewed 27 July 2004, .
Web addresses can be given directly in the text, enclosed in angle brackets <>
The consultation process detailed on the Generational Health Review website clearly defines …
4.6 A document within a website
Include in your reference:
. Author, editor or compiler
. date of document (the copyright date or date it was last updated)
. title of document
. version number (if applicable)
. description of document (if applicable)
. name of sponsor of the source (include location if relevant)
. date of viewing
. URL (either the full details of the URL or the main site URL if easily found from home page)
4.6.1 A document within a website
Sladek, RM 2005, How to construct a search strategy, Australian Centre for Evidence Based Clinical Practice, Bedford Park, South Australia, viewed 6 December 2005,

4.6.2 A pdf document on a sponsored website
Maternity Coalition Inc., Australian Society of Independent Midwives, Community Midwifery WA Inc. 2002, National maternity action plan for the introduction of community midwifery services in urban &

regional Australia, Maternity Coalition Inc., Blackburn North, Victoria, viewed 7 November 2005, .

4.7 Email
In-text references to emails are treated in the same way as personal communications (see 2.8). Generally there is no need to include details in the reference list except where it may be useful to the reader. It is

essential that permission of the owner of the email address be obtained before citing it in the reference list.
Jones, A 2004, email, 20 January 2005, 24
4.8 CD-ROMs
Informational CD-ROMs are referenced in the same way as books except for the insertion of the CD-ROM statement after the date.
Bodyworks: discover the world beneath your skin 1995, CD-ROM, Softkey International, Wimbledon Common, London.
If the information you are referencing from a CD-ROM has an author:
Rosen, M 1998, ‘Marx, Karl (1818-83)’, in Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy, CD-ROM, ed. E Craig, Routledge, New York.
If you are referencing one CD-ROM in a set of CD-ROMs:
Interactive physiology 1999, CD-ROM, vol. 2, Muscular system, instructor’s edn, ADAM Software, Atlanta, Georgia.
Note: this is similar to referencing one volume in a multi-volume work (see section 3.5.8).
4.9 Electronic theses (Australian Digital Theses Program)

Follow the same rules for theses as detailed under 3.8.1.Unpublished works.
Armstrong, KJ 2004 Effectiveness of a pram walking intervention for women experiencing post natal depression, PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology, viewed 6 December 2005, Australian

Digital Theses Program, .
4.10 Media release on World Wide Web
Smith 2002, West Nile virus, humans—USA (Louisiana), ProMED-mail 12 July 2002, 20020712.4737, viewed 6 April 2005, .
4.11 Discussion board, newsgroups and listservers
Permission must be obtained before citing personal communications – personal communications need only to be referenced in-text.
. author’s name
. email address or other identifying details
. date of posting
. title of posting
. description of posting, discussion posting, listserver, newsgroup
. name of list owner—listserver or newsgroup name
. date of viewing
. date viewed
Smith, J 2005, Critical thinking, discussion, 10 November, NURS 1508 Fundamentals of science in a nursing and midwifery context, viewed 10 December 2005,

Sims, L 2005, Order out of chaos, listserver, 30 November, Association of Chaos Theorists, viewed 10 January 2006, .
This bibliography lists the sources consulted in the preparation of this guide.
Central Queensland University, Division of Distance and Continuing Education 2004, Referencing, viewed 9 February 2005, .
Commonwealth of Australia 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, rev. Snooks & Co., John Wiley & Sons Australia, Canberra.
O’Connor, M 2001, Citing or referencing electronic sources of information, viewed 3 January 2002, .
Peters, P 1995, The Cambridge Australian English style guide, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
University of South Australia, Learning Connection 2004, Referencing using the Harvard author-date system, viewed 20 January 2005,


What’s required in the essay Criteria What I want represented in the essay.

1. Strengths

Identify 2 potential diagnoses and support with evidence.

•?Identifies two (2) potential diagnosis and references to these three (3) following areas:
– Knowledge of pathophysiology
– Knowledge of treatment pathways and the ramifications of treatment in complex patient presentations
– Knowledge of scene management

Use Asthma as a potential diagnosis before start assessing, history taking and treating the patient.

During assessment and history taking and assessment, you believe it to be Acute Pulmonary Oedema instead of Asthma.

2. Support your actions and why they are appropriate clinical practice.

•?The student provides evidence (links to literature) why they considered their actions and proposed treatment good practice and rationale for their clinical decisions.
• Evidence of at least three (3) aspects of practice that they have supported from literature.
• A clear rationale is provided for the decisions made and why they have been identified as appropriate clinical decisions.
• Evidence of links to the case scenario
• (at least five (5) references provided to support clinical decision making)

All this needs to be linked into the Strengths section.

3. Weaknesses

Identify knowledge gaps

•?The student demonstrates the ability to identify the knowledge gaps in relation to the case chosen
• Areas of practice are identified with reference to these three (3) following areas:
– Knowledge of pathophysiology
– Knowledge of treatment pathways and the ramifications of treatment in complex patient presentations
– Knowledge of social and psychological aspects of patient presentations

Understanding Renal failure and its relationship with Acute Pulmonary Oedema.

Understanding of the medications the patient is on and how they work.

4. Support why you consider the areas you identified require improvement

•?The student provides evidence (links to literature) why they considered the areas of practice and clinical decisions identified need improvement.
• Evidence of at least three (3) aspects of practice which have been identified as knowledge gaps and supported from literature.
• A clear rationale is provided for the decisions made and why they have been identified for improvement.
• Evidence of links to the case scenario
• (at least five (5) references provided to support why these areas of clinical decision making are important for improvement)

All this needs to be linked into the weakness section

5. Opportunities

What could you research and learn more about?

•?The student identifies areas of learning and ways to meet those learning needs and relates these to improved clinical decision making.
• Strategies are discussed to how the identified learning needs can be met.
• Links to at least three (3) pieces of peer reviewed literature to support the strategies discussed

Associations of Hypertension and Acute Pulonary Oedmea with End stage renal failure (ESRF)

6. Threats

What was difficult about the scenario and why?

•?Barriers or challenges are identified to the clinical decisions made in the case
• Rationale’s are provided for the identified barriers and challenges linked to at least two (2) pieces of peer reviewed literature
• Evidence of links to the case

The barriers and challenges of having a BIAS when walking in the room and thinking it is asthma before any assessment of the patient.

The simulation that needs to written about is supplied on the next 2 pages.

Write 350 to 400 words on Strength.
Write 350 to 400 words on Weakness.
Write 150 to 200 on Opportunities.
Write 150 to 200 on Threats.
Use only peer reviewed literature that is no later than 2006 in the assignment.
Make sure the literature does link back to what you say and is relevant to the area you are writing about.
Will supply a document that shows how they want the references in the assignment a how the
reference list should look. Make sure they are written in alphabetical order of the first author in the reference

CASE NUMBER: 11 Job Information: Fl 7; priority 2, 16 Wishbone St, Parafield Gardens, for a
27 year patient with shortness of breath.

Patient sitting up in kitchen

Leena Butler

Hx Dialysis pt, had dialysis 2 days ago. Has not been achieving
ideal weights even after dialysis. Has had frequent
headaches, Now feels very short of breath.

PHx End stage renal failure, Hypertension

Enalapril (used to treat high BP and congestive heart failure) epoetin beta (to treat patients with symptomatic anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease)
lanthanum carbonate (indicated to reduce serum phosphate in patients with end stage renal failure)
Vit D


Comm. Diseases
Nil known

Social Hx:
Live alone in housing trust unit. Invalid pensioner.

Family Hx:
Mother died of a stroke at 55. Father alive in reasonable

Special strict diet (low calories, Na, K, P & protein) Strict fluid restriction



20 mins later
HR 105 Nil change Nil change
Pulse Strong Nil change Nil change
Rhythm Reg Nil change Nil change
BP 185/110 Nil change Nil change
Cap Refill <2 Nil change Nil change RR 32 Nil change Nil change Breathing Laboured, audible crackles. Coarse crackles across whole lung fields on auscultation Nil change Nil change Sats 92% on air Nil change Nil change Skin Pale, sweaty & cool Nil change Nil change BGL 4.5 Nil change Nil change GCS 15 Nil change Nil change Pupils L4+:R4+ Nil change Nil change Pain Chest pain around ribs when coughing or deep breath Nil change Nil change 2 survey Pt in tripod posture, clear respiratory distress. Complaining of dizziness and headache. == Chinese Folk Art --- Puppet Theatre The most IMPORTANT thing to notice is this is a task for 4 people who need to submit a short essay with 350 words each. It is NOT a task for a single person with 5 pages. It would be a disaster if that happened. ? When the essays are completed, could you please name the files from 1 to 4? Topic: Chinese Folk Art --- Puppet Theatre Give discussion on the main production regions, its features, material used, subject matters, colour, symbolic meaning, and in what occasions it will be used in daily life or festivities. ? Define your OWN topic title. ? Your discussion should be divided into a series of sections with subtitles. ? Conclude with your own view (NOT a summary) after your research on this subject, such as new finding, comment or suggestion on this topic. ? Support your discussion with some pictures. ? No In Text Reference or Reference List is necessary at the end of this short essay.

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