First of all, please send it to environmental specialist person!
Now, all my ideas are below, as an abstract!
Please, read it carefully and write a full paper about it, please!
– I want you to focus on the literature review of it, more than the technical aspects.
As urbanism of the world is growing, a greater supply of fresh water is needed. One of the best solutions is damming and storing river water to meet the various demands of the population during seasonally and annually variable rainfall. A case study using the Tallowa dam (9.3 km2) on the Shoalhaven River in southeastern Australia is investigated.
However, damming a river causes two main problems affecting the river’s ecosystem and the water quality itself for urban usages. On one hand, building a dam on the river has led to a reducing and significant decline in sediment transport and water discharge. This has negatively affected the river’s natural processes and sustainability. So far this has resulted in higher erosion and salinity rates, especially within coastal zones around Comerong Island. On the other hand, water quality has been affected by increasing the sedimentary deposits in the dam, particularly with the accumulation of muddy particles. That has increased the amount of chemical pollution, such as heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr), which have emerged from the streams through the developed catchment. In the long term, heavy metals are released from the muddy sequences into the water associated with increases in pH and the oxidation-reduction potential (Eh), which may eventually affect the water user.
A proposed solution for the sustainability of both of the ecosystem and urbanisation is a proposed solution for the sustainability of both of the ecosystem and constructed Tallowa Dam is to make the water and sediment flow from the base of the dam instead of flowing over the top. In order to maximize the transported sediment volume and to release it to the river ecosystem downstream, holes are constructed through the dam wall, which are connected to collector pipes and channels. The collector pipes extend various distances back into the reservoir to collect the sediment from areas of maximum deposition according to GIS-based of DEM models that can estimate their grid positions. A specific slope (1%) for both the pipes and channels should be designed to achieve sufficient flow velocity for efficient transport of water and sediments and to avoid blockages inside the channels and pipes. Moreover, water discharge would be controlled by hydraulic gates installed on the exit side of the pipes, according to the height of the water head.